A Plan for Preparedness and Management of Disasters
As a result of migration to urban areas worldwide by people who want to seek jobs, high buildings have been erected coupled with increase in population, overhead electric cables, and slum areas. A great disaster is awaiting these urban areas due to the increase in the number of industries, oil storage tanks and pipelines including natural calamities such as earthquakes and landslides. As we saw in the previous years, some parts of the world undergoing different disasters have varying extent and manner of preparedness and how the people react. To minimize the effects and impacts of disaster, mitigation takes place which now includes activities and measures which are put in place. Mitigation also covers the effects and impacts of disaster to a given population or area regarding physical, economic, and social. In comparison to places that lack correct preparedness, as shown in history, having adequate preparation can greatly mitigate the effects of these disasters. Depending on the locality and the community concerned, this can involve a lot of aspects and angles. The two categories for these measures are called structural and non-structural.
Another categorization for these preparedness measures of mitigating disasters aside from structural and non-structural, is either active or passive. Active measures specifically include giving incentives for the reduction of disasters such as correct planning of informal living quarters like in slum areas, or giving rewards to building owners for making the units ready for disaster. Usually, the active measures are more effective than the passive measures that depend on laws and controls. As often observed, the fact that the law based planning codes and rules lack effectiveness unless strongly implemented together with the cooperation of building owners. One way to promote the implementation of safety measures in constructions is to provide subsidies and decrease insurance premiums.
When disasters happen, the government and the local authorities need to have preparedness efforts to clear structures for handling. To have a good disaster preparedness and management unit, it is imperative that the plans and policies should be simple and easy. It is required that the public and members of organizations be educated and that aside from a well planned use of the land, the warning systems must also be placed properly and constantly serviced. Improper planning could result to fires that are difficult to put out and roads that are impassable for fire and emergency vehicles. If pre planning is not done or made, it would be difficult and challenging to respond to disaster like post disaster management.
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